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Sunday, October 01, 2017

David "Davy" Crockett

David Crockett was born 8/17/1786 in Greene County, TN to John Wesley Crockett (DOB 8/17/1754 in Crockett's Creek, Wythe County, VA; DOD 1/30/1834 in Gibson, Gibson County, TN) and Rebecca Sullivan Hawkins (DOB Abt 1764 in MD; DOD Abt 1796 in Rutherford, Gibson County, TN). He was the fifth of nine children born. At the time many of the region’s residents considered themselves citizens of the State of Franklin, a breakaway territory that had declared its independence from North Carolina two years earlier. Supporters of the movement — including Crockett’s father, John — pushed for Franklin to enter the union as the 14th U.S. state, but the fledgling territory fell just shy of the required vote total in Congress. Following a stint as an independent republic, Franklin was eventually reclaimed by North Carolina in 1789. By 1796, its lands had become part of the newly formed state of Tennessee.

The Crocketts were of mostly French-Huguenot ancestry. The earliest known paternal ancestor was Gabriel Gustave de Crocketagne, whose son Antoine de Saussure Peronette de Crocketagne was given a commission in the Household Troops under French King Louis XIV. Antoine married Louise de Saix and immigrated to Ireland with her, changing the family name to Crockett. Their son Joseph Louis Crockett, was born in Ireland and married Sarah Stewart. Joseph and Sarah emigrated to New York, where their son William David Crockett was born in 1709. He married Elizabeth Boulay. William and Elizabeth's son David Crockett was born in Pennsylvania and married Elizabeth Hedge. They were the parents of John Wesley Crockett, father of Davy Crockett.

John was born c. 1753 in Frederick County, Virginia. The family moved to Tryon County, North Carolina c. 1768. In 1776, the family moved to northeast Tennessee, in the area now known as Hawkins County. John was one of the Overmountain Men who fought in the Battle of Kings Mountain during the American Revolutionary War. He was away as a militia volunteer in 1777 when David and Elizabeth were killed at their home near today's Rogersville by Creeks and Chickamauga Cherokees led by war chief Dragging Canoe. John's brother, Joseph, was wounded in the skirmish. His brother James was taken prisoner and held for seventeen years.

John married Rebecca Hawkins in 1780. Their son, David "Davy" Crockett, was born August 17, 1786, and they named him after John's father. David was born in what is now Greene County, Tennessee (at the time part of North Carolina), close to the Nolichucky River and near the community of Limestone. Crockett's father taught him to shoot a rifle when he was just 8 years old. As a youngster, he eagerly accompanied his older brothers on hunting trips.

Davy Crockett began his formal education began at 12 or 13, when his father arranged for him to attend a local school. “I went four days,” the frontiersman later wrote in his autobiography, “and had just began to learn my letters a little, when I had an unfortunate falling out with one of the scholars—a boy much larger and older than myself.” The strong-willed Crockett eventually ambushed the bully after class and gave him a severe beating. He then began skipping school to avoid punishment. When his father tried to give him a whipping, he ran away from home joining a cattle drive.

John continually struggled to make ends meet, and the Crocketts moved to a tract of land on Lick Creek in 1792. John sold that tract of land in 1794 and moved the family to Cove Creek, where he built a gristmill with partner Thomas Galbraith. A flood destroyed the gristmill and the Crockett homestead. The Crocketts then moved to Mossy Creek in Jefferson County, Tennessee, but John forfeited his property in bankruptcy in 1795. The family next moved on to property owned by a Quaker named John Canady. At Morristown in the Southwest Territory, John built a tavern on a stage coach route.

Following the moves of the family.

Frederick County, VA

Tryon County, NC

Hawkins County, TN

Rogersville, Hawkins County, TN in red

Greene County, TN - Greene County developed from the "Nolichucky settlement," established by pioneer Jacob Brown on land leased in the early 1770s from the Cherokee people. The Nolichucky settlement was aligned with the Watauga settlement, centered in modern Elizabethton. After the United States became independent, Greene County was formed in 1783 from the original Washington County, North Carolina, part of the former Washington District. The county is named for Major General Nathanael Greene (1742-1786), a major general in the Continental Army from Rhode Island. John Crockett, father of Davy Crockett, and his wife settled in the county near Limestone. David was born there in 1786. At the time, the area was part of the extra-legal state Franklin.

Greeneville (county seat)

Census-designated place:
Fall Branch (partial)

Unincorporated communities:
Camp Creek
Cross Anchor
Horse Creek
Liberty Hill
Limestone (Washington College Academy was founded in Limestone in 1780 by Rev. Samuel Doak, and was the first institution to bear the name of the first American president. Limestone was the birthplace of David Crockett (1786) to John and Rebecca Crockett.)
South Greene
Crockett's birth cabin in Greene county, TN

Lick Creek, Greene County, TN

Cove Creek, Greene county, TN

Jefferson county, TN

Mossy Creek, Jefferson City, Jefferson county, TN

Morristown, Hamblen county, TN - Morristown is a city in and the county seat of Hamblen County, TN. Morristown is primarily located in Hamblen County while a small portion of the city is located in Jefferson County. The first European settler of what eventually became Morristown was farmer Gideon Morris from the Watauga Settlement, a short-lived semi-autonomous settlement located in northeast Tennessee that was originally leased from the resident Cherokee tribes during the 1770s. It was here that John Wesley Crockett built a tavern and settled down. When Davy was 12 years old, his father indentured him to Jacob Siler to help with the Crockett family indebtedness. He helped tend Siler's cattle as a buckaroo on a 400-mile trip to near Natural Bridge, VA. He was well treated and paid for his services but, after several weeks in Virginia, he decided to return home to Tennessee. He joined a cattle drive to Front Royal, VA for Jesse Cheek. Then he joined teamster Adam Myers on a trip to Gerrardstown, WV. After leaving Myers, he journeyed to Christiansburg, VA, where he apprenticed for the next four years with hatter Elijah Griffith. In 1802, at the age of 16, David journeyed by foot back to his father's tavern in Tennessee. His father was in debt to Abraham Wilson for $36, so David was hired out to Wilson to pay off the debt. Later, he worked off a $40 debt to John Canady. Once the debts were paid, John Crockett told his son that he was free to leave. David returned to Canady's employment, where he stayed for four years.

Franklin County, TN

Lawrence Count, TN

 Lincoln County, TN

Gibson County, TN - Gibson County is located in what was known as "Indian Land": territory occupied by the Chickasaw. The Chickasaw Cession, proclaimed on January 7, 1819, opened the region for settlement by white settlers and speculators. Soon after the Chickasaw Cession, the first log cabin in what was Carroll County had been built by Thomas Fite about eight miles east of present-day Trenton. In 1819 Thomas Fite built the first cabin in Gibson County, which was then part of Carroll County. Luke Biggs, Davy Crockett, and others followed. From 1819 the area was part of Carroll County but, as settlement progressed, citizens petitioned for the formation of a new county. The county was established by private act on October 21, 1823 and was named in honor of Colonel John H. Gibson who had died earlier that year. Gibson was a native of Bedford County, Tennessee who was commissioned Lieutenant in the Tennessee Militia; he took part in the War of 1812, the campaign to Natchez of 1813, and fought in the Creek Wars of 1813. In its early years, Gibson County grew rapidly, chiefly because the land had less dense forest growth than some adjacent areas and was therefore more easily prepared to farm cotton and corn. In 1837 the county line between Gibson and Weakley counties was adjusted to include the southwestern corner of Weakley County, all land below the South Fork of the Obion in Gibson County. This simplified travel to a county seat by eliminating the need for river crossings but thereby robbed Weakley County of its most famous citizen, David Crockett, who had been killed in Texas the year before. In 1871 the newly created Crocket County acquired Gibson County territory south of the Middle Fork of the Forked Deer River for essentially the same reasons.-Wikipedia

Humboldt (partial)
Trenton (county seat)

Kenton (partial)

Unincorporated communities:
Frog Jump

Neighboring Counties:

The places Crockett and his immediate family lived in.

Crockett fell in love with John Canady's niece, Amy Summer, but she was engaged to Canady's son, Robert. As part of the wedding party, Crockett met Margaret Elder. He asked her to marry him and a marriage contract was drawn up on October 21, 1805 (Davy was 19 yrs old) but the fickle Margaret became engaged to another young man at the same time and married him instead. He met Mary Elizabeth "Polly" Finley and her mother at a harvest festival. In his autobiography Crockett recalled "she looked sweeter than sugar". They fell in love. Her mother was friendly to him at first but felt Crockett was not right for Polly. Crockett would marry Polly, regardless. He took out a marriage license on 8/12/1806. He and some of his friends came to pick up Polly to go get married but her father insisted she be married at home. They were married 8/16/1806 at Finleys Gap, Jefferson county, TN. They married at her parents home despite her mother's original objections.

Mary "Polly" Finley was born 1/4/1788 in Jefferson County, TN to William Finley (DOB Abt 1765; DOD Abt 1819) and Jean Kennedy.

Davy and Polly Crockett had 3 children:

1) John Wesley Crockett (DOB 7/10/1807 in Franklin County, TN, DOD 11/24/1854 in Shelby County, TN) married Martha Turner Hamilton.

2) William Finley Crockett (DOB 11/25/1809 in Jefferson County, TN; DOD 1/12/1846 in Arkansas County, AR) married Clorinda Boyett.

3) Margaret Finley Crockett (DOB 11/25/1812 in Franklin County, TN; DOD Abt 1860 in Gibson County, TN) married Wiley Flowers.

In 1813, 27-year-old Crockett was among the thousands of Tennesseans who joined the state militia to fight against the “Red Sticks,” a faction of Creek Indians who had attacked American settlers at Fort Mims, Alabama. Crockett spent most of the Creek War working as a scout and wild game hunter, but he was also present when future president Andrew Jackson—then the commander of Tennessee’s militia—led his volunteers in the slaughter of some 200 Red Sticks at the Creek village of Tallushatchee. He participated in this massacre of Indians at Tallussahatchee in northern Alabama, but returned home when his enlistment was up, Crockett later served as a sergeant during Jackson’s War of 1812 campaign in Spanish Florida, but saw little action before his enlistment ended in 1815.

James and Margaret Elizabeth Patton moved to Tennessee and James Patton fought in the Creek Wars. As he lay dying he asked his friend and fellow Indian fighter, David Crockett, to take his personal effects back to his wife. David honored his friend’s dying request and in the process of returning the personal belongings, met Elizabeth Patton.

Crockett tried his hand at everything from farming to manufacturing wood barrels and gunpowder, but he found his greatest success as a professional hunter. He spent much of his life stalking black bears in the woods of Tennessee and selling their pelts, meat and oil for profit. He even claimed to have bagged 105 of the animals in a seven-month period during the winter of 1825-26.

Not long after his return from the Creek Wars, Polly Finley Crockett died at the age of 27 years old in March 1815 in Bean's Creek, Franklin County, TN. The oldest child was only 8 yrs old and the youngest was only 3 yrs old. Crockett asked his brother, John, and his sister-in-law to move in with him to help care for the children. Later that same year, he would marry the widow Elizabeth Patton. After Polly's death, he thought of the pretty Widow Patton whom he had met when he took her husband's personal effects to her and to tell her that her husband had died in the Creek Wars. Upon inquiry, he found that she had moved back to her father’s home in Swannanoa in Buncombe County, NC. He followed her there. Elizabeth Patton was not “bowled over,” and it took Crockett a considerable length of time to persuade her to marry him. After they married and returned to Tennessee, Crockett was a frequent visitor to Buncombe County. David and his companions frequently traveled the road from Asheville to Old Fort by way of Black Mountain. When a toll charge was put on this road, Crockett and others were furious, and decided to find another way to get from Asheville to Old Fort. Crockett went up the old Asheville-Charlotte Road (now U.S. 74) to Fairview.

Margaret Elizabeth "Betsy" Patton was born 5/22/1788 in Buncombe County, North Carolina. She married her first cousin, James Patton (DOB Abt 1784 in Buncombe County, NC; DOD 11/23/1814 of multiple wounds during the Creek Indian War in Blount County, AL) on 4/7/1808 in Kentucky. They had two children: George Patton and Margaret Ann Patton.

Davy and Betsy Crockett had three children:

1) Robert Patton Crockett (DOB 9/8/1816 in Franklin County, TN; DOD 9/23/1889 in Hood County, TX) married Matilda Porter, Louise Adeline Causey Wohlford, Lydia A Eaton Corley Ellis

2) Rebecca Elvira Crockett (DOB 12/25/1818 in TN; DOD 3/23/1879 in Acton, Hood County, TX) married George Kimbrough and James Marion Halford.

3) Matilda Crockett (DOB 8/2/1821 in Lawrence County, TN; DOD 7/6/1890 in Kenton, Gibson County, TN) married Thomas P. Tyson, James Wilson and Redland Fields.

Crockett was a natural leader. In 1817, Crockett moved the family to new acreage in Lawrence County, where he first entered public office as a commissioner helping to configure the new county's boundaries. He advanced from justice of the peace to two terms in the Tennessee legislature. In 1817, Crockett moved the family to new acreage in Lawrence County, where he first entered public office as a commissioner helping to configure the new county's boundaries. He favored legislation to ease the tax burden on the poor. Crockett spent his entire legislative career fighting for the rights of impoverished settlers who he felt dangled on the precipice of losing title to their land due to the state's complicated system of grants.

Less than two weeks after Crockett's 1821 election to the General Assembly, a flood of the Tennessee River destroyed Crockett's businesses. In November, Elizabeth's father, Robert Patton, deeded 800 acres of his Carroll County property to Crockett. Crockett sold off most of the acreage to help settle his debts, and moved his family to the remaining acreage on the Obion River, which remained in Carroll County until 1825 when the boundaries were reconfigured and put it in Gibson County.

In 1823, he ran against Andrew Jackson's nephew-in-law, William Edward Butler, and won a seat in the General Assembly representing the counties of Carroll, Humphreys, Perry, Henderson and Madison. He served in the first session, which ran from September through the end of November 1823, and in the second session that ran September through the end of November 1824, championing the rights of the impoverished farmers.

In 1831 Elizabeth Patton Crockett herself returned to Swannanoa for a visit. When she was ready to go back, her father, Robert Patton, decided to go with her, and died there a year later in 1832. David Crockett became the administrator of his estate

On October 25, 1824 Crockett announced his intention to run for U.S. House of Representatives. He lost that race but tried again and he easily defeated both political opponents for the 1827–29 term. He arrived in Washington D.C. and took up residence at Mrs. Ball's Boarding House, where a number of other legislators lived when Congress was in session. Jackson was elected as President in 1828. Crockett continued his legislative focus on settlers getting a fair deal for land titles, offering H.R. 27 amendment to a bill sponsored by James K. Polk. Crockett was re-elected for the 1829–31 session. He introduced H.R. 185 amendment to the land bill on January 29, 1830, but it was defeated on May 3. On February 25, 1830, he introduced a resolution to abolish the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York because he felt that it was public money going to benefit the sons of wealthy men. He spoke out against Congress giving $100,000 to the widow of Stephen Decatur, citing that Congress was not empowered to do that. He opposed Jackson's 1830 Indian Removal Act and was the only member of the Tennessee delegation to vote against it. Cherokee chief John Ross sent him a letter on January 13, 1831 expressing his thanks for Crockett's vote. His vote was not popular with his own district, and he was defeated in the 1831 election by William Fitzgerald. "I believed it was a wicked, unjust measure…. I voted against this Indian bill, and my conscience yet tells me that I gave a good honest vote, and one that I believe will not make me ashamed in the day of judgement." - David Crockett, A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett. He broke with Andrew Jackson over a number of issues and was defeated in 1831; in 1833 he returned to Congress, this time as a Whig.Crockett ran against Fitzgerald again in the 1833 election and was returned to Congress, serving until 1835. On January 2, 1834, he introduced the land title resolution H.R. 126, but it never made it as far as being debated on the House floor. He was defeated for re-election in the August 1835 election by Adam Huntsman. On January 30, 1835, the two men were part of a crowd of lawmakers leaving the U.S. Capitol after a state funeral. As Jackson passed near the East Portico, a crazed gunman named Richard Lawrence emerged from a throng of spectators and shot at him with two pistols—both of which miraculously misfired. “Old Hickory” supposedly responded by whacking Lawrence with his cane. Crockett, meanwhile, was one of several bystanders who disarmed the would-be assassin and wrestled him to the ground.

By December 1834, Crockett was writing to friends about moving to Texas if Jackson's chosen successor Martin Van Buren was elected President. he grew disillusioned with politics and decided to join the fight in the Texas War of Independence. The next year, he discussed with his friend Benjamin McCulloch raising a company of volunteers to take to Texas in the expectation that a revolution was imminent. His departure to Texas was delayed by a court appearance in the last week of October as co-executor of his deceased father-in-law's estate; he finally left his home near Rutherford in West Tennessee with three other men on Nov. 1, 1835 to explore Texas. In 1836, newspapers published the now-famous quotation attributed to Crockett upon his return to his home state: "I told the people of my district that I would serve them as faithfully as I had done; but if not, they might go to hell, and I would go to Texas."

Crockett, 49 years old, traveled with 30 well-armed men to Jackson, TN, where he gave a speech from the steps of the Madison County courthouse, and they arrived in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 12, 1835. He was famous and everywhere he went he was welcomed by people coming to see the great frontiersman and Congressman. Newspapers built him into a mythical figure.

Crockett arrived in Nacogdoches, Texas in early January 1836. On January 14, he and 65 other men signed an oath before Judge John Forbes to the Provisional Government of Texas for six months: "I have taken the oath of government and have enrolled my name as a volunteer and will set out for the Rio Grande in a few days with the volunteers from the United States." Each man was promised about 4,600 acres of land as payment.

Several months previously, Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were then garrisoned at the Alamo. The Texian force grew slightly with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. Travis. On February 23, approximately 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas.

On February 6, Crockett and five other men rode into San Antonio de Bexar and camped just outside the town. Crockett arrived at the Alamo Mission in San Antonio on February 8, 1836. The Mexican army arrived on 2/23/1836 led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. They immediately set up a siege. Santa Anna ordered his artillery to keep up a near-constant bombardment. The guns were moved closer to the Alamo each day, increasing their effectiveness. On 2/25/1836, they were 90 to 100 yards from the Alamo walls. The fort fired shot and the men fired rifles while volunteers burned the shacks that had been used by the Mexicans for cover. Alamo commander William Barret Travis sent many messages asking for reinforcements. Some men made it through to help reinforce. But on 3/6/1836, the Mexican Army attacked while the men slept (the Mexican artillery had quit firing on them and they took the quiet time to sleep). The noncombatants gathered in the church sacristy. Crockett paused briefly in the chapel to say a prayer before running to his post. The Mexican soldiers breached the north outer walls of the Alamo complex, and most of the Texians fell back to the barracks and the chapel, as previously planned. Crockett and his men, however, were too far from the barracks to take shelter and were the last remaining group to be in the open. They defended the low wall in front of the church, using their rifles as clubs and relying on knives, as the action was too furious to allow reloading. Some 200 defenders died in the 90 minute battle.


Some of the men evidently surrendered or were taken alive, but it was said that General Santa Anna refused to take prisoners and commanded they be murdered. Staff officers drew their swords and killed them. Crockett either died in the battle or was killed by the Mexican officers after the battle. Either way, he and his fellow fighters died as heroes! Santa Anna ordered his men to take the bodies to a nearby stand of trees, where they were stacked together and wood piled on top. That evening, they lit a fire and burned their bodies to ashes. The ashes were left undisturbed until February 1837, when Juan Seguin and his cavalry returned to Bexar to examine the remains. A local carpenter created a simple coffin, and ashes from the funeral pyres were placed inside. The names of Travis, Crockett, and Bowie were inscribed on the lid. The coffin is thought to have been buried in a peach tree grove, but the spot was not marked and can no longer be identified.

The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution.

Of the noncombatants, in an attempt to convince other slaves in Texas to support the Mexican government over the Texian rebellion, Santa Anna spared Travis' slave, Joe. Each woman was given a blanket and two silver pesos. Juana Navarro Alsbury and the other Tejano women were allowed to return to their homes in Béxar; Susanna Dickinson, her daughter and Joe were sent to Gonzales, escorted by Ben. They were encouraged to relate the events of the battle, and to inform the remainder of the Texian forces that Santa Anna's army was unbeatable. These were the survivors who told the story.

In the 1840 U.S. Census it looks like Eizabeth Patton Crockett is living with her married daughter, Rebecca Elvira Crockett Kimbrough in Dyer, Gibson County, TN. In the 1850 U.S. Census, Elizabeth Patton Crockett is living in Gibson County, TN with her widowed daughter, Matilda Crockett Tyson.

Some time later Elizabeth Crockett and all three children, John W., William and Margaret, carried out the moved to Texas on their own. Elizabeth died at the age of 72 on 1/31/1860 in Acton, Hood County, TX.


Thursday, September 21, 2017

Did you know...
Though C.S.A. General James Longstreet was a Confederate in the war, after the war, he joined the Republican Party and supported rights and freedoms for former slaves which made him unpopular to former Confederates harrassed and impoverished by the War and Reconstruction. Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse" and "the staff in my right hand." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, but also with Gen. Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater. Biographer and historian Jeffry D. Wert wrote that Longstreet, "was the finest corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia; in fact, he was arguably the best corps commander in the conflict on either side." After the War, he led African-American militia against the anti-Reconstruction White League at the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874 in which he was eventually pulled from his horse, shot by a spent bullet (i.e. not badly injured) and taken prisoner. Criticism from authors in the Lost Cause movement attacked Longstreet's war career for many years after his death. Knudsen maintains that because Longstreet became a "reconstructed rebel", embraced equal rights for blacks, unification of the nation, and Reconstruction, he became the target of those who wanted to maintain racist policies and otherwise could not accept the verdict of the battlefield.

Some Quotes

C.S.A. General Robert E. Lee, "I have fought against the people of the North because I believed they were seeking to wrest from the South its dearest rights. But I have never cherished toward them bitter or vindictive feelings, and I have never seen the day when I did not pray for them."

U.S.A. General Ulysses S. Grant, "The art of war is simple enough. Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike him as hard as you can, and keep moving on."

C.S.A. General Stonewall Jackson letter to his pastor after the First Battle of Bull Run, "My dear pastor, in my tent last night, after a fatiguing day's service, I remembered that I failed to send a contribution for our colored Sunday school. Enclosed you will find a check for that object, which please acknowledge at your earliest convenience and oblige yours faithfully."

U.S.A. General William Tecumseh Sherman in a letter to his wife dated 7/1864, "I regard the death and mangling of a couple thousand men as a small affair, a kind of morning dash — and it may be well that we become so hardened."

Quote from Sherman's memoirs, "You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot have peace and a division of our country. If the United States submits to a division now, it will not stop, but will go on until we reap the fate of Mexico, which is eternal war. The United States does and must assert its authority, wherever it once had power; for, if it relaxes one bit to pressure, it is gone, and I believe that such is the national feeling."

Friday, September 01, 2017

Antifa and Fascists - What Are They?

Antifa - ANTI-FAscist (see definition of "fascism" below). The term is used to define a broad group of people whose political beliefs lean toward the left-often the far left-but do not conform with the Democratic Party platform. Militant leftists, or occasionally far leftists and radical leftists, (in history, the term "anarchist" was used) often used as a generalization of people who commit to acts of violence against those on the Right side of the political spectrum. They focus more on fighting far-right ideology directly than on encouraging pro-left policy. The salient feature of Antifa is to oppose perceived fascism by direct action, including violence if need be. Antifa groups tend to be anti-government and anti-capitalist; its adherents are mostly socialists, anarchists, and communists. Antifa groups are known for militant protest tactics, including property damage and physical violence.

Fascism - a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism. Fascism stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before it spread to other European countries. Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete, and they regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society.

Mark Bray, a Dartmouth lecturer who has defended antifa’s violent tactics, recently explained in The Washington Post, “(Antifa) adherents are predominantly communists, socialists and anarchists” who believe that physical violence “is both ethically justifiable and strategically effective.” In other words, they are no different from neo-Nazis.

So let's compare the two (Fascists vs. Antifa).

A Fascist government has a dictator, a leader who holds total control and the people have no voice. The dictator has no term limit. He rules through a martial government. America is a democracy in which we, the people, elect our leaders for a limited term. We have a check and balance government in which no one person has all the power. We have a President who serves 4 years, at the most 8 years. We have Congress (whom we vote for those elected) and we have a judicial system. This divides the power so no one person has all the power. It's a protection for the people so that we don't become victims of a dictator.

Fascists believe in forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism - "forcible suppression of opposition". Antifa is a group who believe in violently protesting those who have a different opinion from them - "commit to acts of violence against those on the Right side of the political spectrum. They focus more on fighting far-right ideology".

Fascists believe in "regimenting all commerce". A fascist government, led by it's dictator, takes over the country's economy. This is the opposite of capitalism. Capitalism is when a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. America is mostly a capitalist nation. We have some monopolies (ex. utility companies) and we have government regulations (lots of regulations!) but we are capitalist for the most part.

Fascists believe in social regimentation. Regimentation is very strict control over the way a group of people behave or the way something is done. A totalitarian system imposes strict discipline to enforce uniformity. It is very strict control over the way a group of people behave or the way something is done. Antifa demands that everyone think like they think or suffer the violent consequences. In other words, we should all adhere to their way of thinking, vote their way, agree with them, i.e. uniformity and control with violence to enforce it.

Fascists believe a totalitarian one-party state is necessary to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Antifa believe a one-party (the Left, Democrats, or whatever they consider themselves politically) state is necessary to forge unity and a stable, orderly society. We must all be of the same political opinion and vote their way or face their attacks.

Fascism emphasizes "an aggressive nationalism and often racism". Antifa emphasizes aggression in the name of nationalism and they are racist. They hate white people. They equate white people with white supremacists. They are blancophobic (fear of white people). They can be white themselves and yet still think all other white people are evil!?! To Antifa, white = evil. They are irrationally hostile to white people. America has created and enacted law upon law to protect people from discrimination based on color, religion, sex, etc. There has never been, in the history of mankind, a government, nation, or people who has tried harder to offer equality to everyone than America! We are dealing with flawed, sinful human beings so it will never be perfect. But no one else has come as close to being color blind as America. Think about all the countries in the world today... everyone wants to come to America! Why? Because they have a chance to have a better life! Think about history. Has any civilization, empire or tribe ever tried harder to provide equality and acceptance to it's citizens than today's America? Native Americans fought each other because they were different tribes. Some made human sacrifices, by the thousands, of their enemies in order to appease their gods. Romans had slaves and crucified Christians by the thousands because they worshipped differently. Vikings and German barbarian tribes attacked and wiped out whole villages because they wanted what they had. Mongolian hordes nearly took over Europe because Europeans were different than the Mongolians and had what the Mongols wanted. Hitler hated Jews and other people groups and tried to commit genocide. Today, Muslims believe in taking over the world for Allah and establishing a one world religion of Islam. Their religion encourages them to kill any infidels who don't convert to Islam and when they kill the infidels they get a special blessing in the afterlife! Ever since man was created and fell to sin, they have fought each other. It's the human condition. And the America of today is about as good as it's ever going to be and certainly better than any other country, now or throughout history!

So let's see what Antifa has to offer:
They are "anti fascist" which would indicate that they are against a fascist dictator and fascist martial government. Great except America is not ruled by a dictator or a martial government. So what are they protesting?!?

They believe in using violence to force people to follow their philosophy and political ideology. This sounds like fascism to me.

Fascists believe in the government taking over the economy, regimenting all commerce and trade with strict enforcement by a martial government. Antifa wants to socialize our economy. They want governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods. Sounds fascist to me.

Fascists want to to have control over the way people behave, think, and live to be enforced with strict discipline. Antifa wants everyone to behave, think and live according to their philosophy and political ideologies and are willing to use violence to force people to follow the party line. Sounds fascist to me.

Fascists are aggressive nationalists and racist. Antifa are racist in their hatred of the white race and their desire to punish the white race for perceived offenses. Sounds fascist to me.

So, Antifa protestors are protesting against non-existent fascism in America in a fascist way in order to force us all into a fascist uniformity just like Mussolini and his fascist government did back in 1917-1945! Antifa are fascists protesting fascism.

Diversity is healthy. Equality will never be 100% but, in the America of today, we are closer than we've ever been. Discussion is welcomed. Learning new ideas and broadening our horizons shows maturity. Agreeing to disagree is sometimes the wisest thing to do to keep the peace. But the fanaticism to force others to think and behave (and vote) in uniformity enforced with violence is wrong no matter which side you are on. White supremacists who believe in white power and the BM who believe in black power and the Antifa who believe in anarchy are ALL wrong! When you are ready to vandalize other people's property, businesses and public property... when you are ready to threaten, attack and assault people... when you are ready to threaten and assassinate an elected political official and their family... when you are ready to burn cars, smash windows, deface and destroy monuments, loot and steal... when you are ready to scream obscenities and disrupt daily business... when you are ready to murder policemen... then you should be ready to go to jail.

Antifa Violence Finally Covered on MSNBC

In order to keep the peace and protect the innocent, we have laws. You break the laws, then law enforcement should enforce the laws by arresting your butt. And the justice system should enforce the laws by throwing your sorry butt in jail! If a white supremacist burned a black man's house down then I would expect the police to arrest the culprit(s) and I would expect them to go to jail and pay the price. I expect no less for a BLM protestor or an Antifa thug who breaks the law. There are ways to make changes that don't include breaking the law! Every 4 years you have a chance to work within the system to make a change. Work for your political candidate of choice. Donate money to their campaign. Put out signs, make phone calls, go door-to-door. Peacefully protest. Make your opinions known. Don't force your opinion, but you are free to make them known. And VOTE! If your candidate of choice doesn't win, then work harder next time. Because in 4 years, you will have another chance. That's America! I have lived long enough to know that sometimes my candidate of choice wins and sometimes they don't. I have to live with Democrat presidents and congressmen just like you have to live with Republican presidents and congressmen.

I'm tired of entitled, spoiled brat, ignorant people who demand their own way. They obviously don't have enough to do, have a job, or have a life. They seemingly can afford to waste time, ganging up and going rogue! So many are nearly illiterate and yet they are making demands!?! They know nothing about economics, history, political science, world religions, science... yet they grab a club, a mask and make ridiculous demands:

Chanelle Helm, the so-called “cofounder and core organizer of Black Lives Matter Louisville,” wrote an article titled “White people, here are 10 requests from a Black Lives Matter leader.”
1. White people, if you don’t have any descendants, will your property to a black or brown family. Preferably one that lives in generational poverty.

2. White people, if you’re inheriting property you intend to sell upon acceptance, give it to a black or brown family. You’re bound to make that money in some other white privileged way.

3. If you are a developer or realty owner of multi-family housing, build a sustainable complex in a black or brown blighted neighborhood and let black and brown people live in it for free.

4. White people, if you can afford to downsize, give up the home you own to a black or brown family. Preferably a family from generational poverty.

5. White people, if any of the people you intend to leave your property to are racists assholes, change the will, and will your property to a black or brown family. Preferably a family from generational poverty.

6. White people, re-budget your monthly so you can donate to black funds for land purchasing.

7. White people, especially white women (because this is yaw specialty — Nosey Jenny and Meddling Kathy), get a racist fired. Yaw know what the fuck they be saying. You are complicit when you ignore them. Get your boss fired cause they racist too.

8. Backing up No. 7, this should be easy but all those sheetless Klan, Nazi’s and Other lil’ dick-white men will all be returning to work. Get they ass fired. Call the police even: they look suspicious.

9. OK, backing up No. 8, if any white person at your work, or as you enter in spaces and you overhear a white person praising the actions from yesterday, first, get a pic. Get their name and more info. Hell, find out where they work — Get Them Fired. But certainly address them, and, if you need to, you got hands: use them.

10. Commit to two things: Fighting white supremacy where and how you can (this doesn’t mean taking up knitting, unless you’re making scarves for black and brown kids in need), and funding black and brown people and their work.

Antifa Member Embarrasses Himself on Every Topic

I think the members of the BLM and Antifa organizations are thugs and criminals in masks. They have embraced something to give them a reason, excuse and justification for their criminal behavior and the hate that fills their hearts. They are feeling powerful and it's intoxicating. They get in a mob mode and the cameras are rolling. It has nothing to do with any real beliefs or altruistic ideologies.

To tie this up. I'm a Christian, a white Christian woman. I'm persecuted because I'm a Christian, because I'm white and because I'm a woman. But my Lord teaches me that I should love God and my fellow man. As a sinful human being, I know how easy it is to look down on and despise anyone who is different than me. But as a Christian I try to overcome this base sin.

Whether based on race, religion, gender, economic background, nationality, etc. we are equally loved by God! He created us and we are each unique masterpieces. But we are also born with a sinful nature. We love sin. It's our nature. God created Adam and Eve to be a triune being as God is a triune God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit, three in one! Adam and Eve were created in God's image and we are a 3 part being: body, mind (soul) and spirit. When Adam and Eve sinned in the Garden of Eden, their spirits died and from then on these humans, who were made to be in God's image and be a triune being, were handicapped because we only had our mind (soul) and body. The spirit was what communed with God and enjoyed a oneness with God. We were separated from God because we had sinned and our spirit had died. But Jesus came that each of us could be saved. Christians call it being "born again" because when we become believers, our spirit is born and we become a triune being, the way we were suppose to be. And our spirit can now enjoy being one with God in communion with Him!

For those who have not yet accepted, or who will never accept, Jesus as their Savior, they are lost. And we cannot expect a lost, unsaved person to act any better. They are handicapped with a dead spirit, they are not in fellowship with God, and we can expect no less from them. They are not going to behave in a Christ-like manner because they don't know Christ and their spirit is dead. They don't know any better. All they know is hatred, anger, selfishness, etc. It's their nature and it's all they know.

(Anyone can become a believer in Christ and can accept His forgiveness and love and be born again. It's as simple as reaching out to Him and asking Him to be the Lord of your life and asking His forgiveness for your sin. If you have truly believed and have been converted, in that instant!, you are born again! Your have a new spirit and have become a triune being. You can have fellowship with God. The Holy Spirit comes to live with your new baby spirit, to teach, train, guide, and support you as you mature in Christ by the renewing of your mind. There is no one that cannot be saved. Jesus took on all the sins of the world - even, and especially, your sins. God loves you and provided a way for you to be saved. He stands at the door of your heart and knocks. Please invite Him in today.)

For those of us who are Christians, we should know better than to hate others. I'm still human, but I must strive to be better. I get angry with what I see on from these ignorant BLM and Antifa protests. I get disgusted and I can think and say things that are not Christ-like. But the Holy Spirit reminds me this is wrong and I have to ask forgiveness for these feelings and try to do better. We all should. Keep our hearts free from hatred, give these overwhelming problems to the Lord and trust Him for the outcome and solutions. I also should be careful in what I say. These people, who make me so mad, are just as loved by God as I am. I should keep in mind that they are also master works of art by their Creator God and He loves them. They are in a mess and making some very bad choices, but God loves them anyway. I should respect them enough not to curse them, call them names, or wish them any harm. If for no other reason than that they are God's creation and He loves them.

I can make my opinions known in ways that are not threatening, retaliatory or ugly. I can protest in peaceful ways. I can participate in the political system  and voting in order to bring change. I can pray and trust God. I can strive to be helpful and cooperative rather than antagonistic and demanding. I can make a stand when necessary but without anger and rancour. I can attempt to keep a balance in my heart and in my life and try to keep God as my first priority.

Finally, there are times when it's best to keep our mouths shut. We may want to argue, debate, get our point across, stand up for ourselves, shout and force our opinion. We can state our beliefs in a positive way. After that, it may be time to be quiet. First, we rarely convert anyone to our way of thinking. Second, it rehearses the problem over and over again instead of focusing on the solutions. Third, we tend to escalate and before you know it, it's a shouting match with no one the winner. Fifth, we may fall into gossip, slander, name calling, exaggeration, etc. Sometimes the old saying, "If you can't say anything good, then don't say anything at all", is wisdom.

Monday, August 21, 2017

The Real General Robert E. Lee

Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870)

Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee (October 1, 1808 – November 5, 1873)

Mary Anna Randolph Custis was born on October 1, 1808, the only surviving child of George Washington Parke Custis and Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis. George Washington Parke Custis was the son of George Washington's step-grandson and adopted son, John Parke Custis and Eleanor Calvert Custis. John Parke Custis was the son of Martha Dandridge and Daniel Parke Custis. Daniel Parke Custis died leaving his wealthy widow and two children. Martha Dandridge Custis then married the famous George Washington, first President of the United States! Martha had 4 children with her first husband (only 2 survived to adulthood) but she and George did not have children. George Washington adopted and raised her two children. So Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee was the great granddaughter of Martha Dandridge Custis Washington and George Washington. She was raised at Arlington House, Alexandria, VA built by her father, George Washington Parke Custis. He inherited a fortune from his father, John Parke Custis, including the plantation property that Arlington House was built on.

Robert Edward Lee was Mary Anna Custis' third cousin and they knew each other all their lives, playing together as children. They married in 1831 at Arlington House.

Mary Anna Custis Lee was well educated and well read. She was vivacious and a gracious hostess. She painted landscapes like her father and was an avid gardener. She especially loved roses and she chose the bedroom that overlooked her flower garden for her master bedroom after she married Robert E. Lee. She inherited her father's assets upon his death in 1857. She took on the job of editing and publishing her father's memoirs, Recollections and Private Memoirs of Washington by His Adopted Son, George Washington Parke Custis, with a Memoir of the Author by His Daughter, published in 1860. The Lees usually attended Christ Church in Alexandria—the same church that both Mary and Robert had attended in their childhood. Mary followed the Custis family tradition of having family prayers after breakfast and each evening in the family parlor. Robert was confirmed in the Episcopal Church at the age of 46. Following the example of her mother, Mary Lee taught Arlington slave women to sew, read and write. At the time, educating slaves was illegal! Advocating the idea of eventual emancipation, Mary wanted to ensure that all of the enslaved people would be able to support themselves when they were freed. Lee supported of the work of his wife and her mother to liberate slaves and fund their move to Liberia which was a popular idea at the time and seen as a humane solution for freed slaves.

Robert Edward Lee was born January 19, 1806 or 1807 to Revolutionary War officer Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee III (nicknamed for his excellent horsemanship) and his second wife, Anne Hill Carter at Stratford Hall Plantation in Westmoreland County, VA. Light Horse Harry Lee was a famous Patriot during the American Revolutionary War and a Governor of Virginia. But he spent time in a debtor's prison in 1809. In 1812, Harry Lee was badly injured in a political riot in Baltimore. In time he became so disabled that he traveled to the West Indies for his health. He would never return, dying when his son Robert was eleven years old. It is not known how the relationship between father and son was as Robert E. Lee rarely spoke of his childhood. His mother was left penniless with 6 children and they relied on the kindness of extended family who took in and supported the family.

Anne Lee's family was often supported by a relative named William Henry Fitzhugh, who wrote to Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, urging that Robert be given an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Fitzhugh wrote little of Robert's academic prowess, dwelling much on the prominence of his family. Robert delivered the letter to John C. Calhoun personally and received his appointment to West Point in 1824. He began attending in 1825. At the time, the focus of the curriculum was engineering and cadets were not permitted leave until they had finished two years of study and were rarely allowed off the Academy grounds. Lee graduated second in his class and did not incur any demerits during his four-year course of study, a distinction shared by five of his 45 classmates. In June 1829, Lee was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. After graduation, while awaiting assignment, he returned to Virginia to find his mother on her deathbed; she died on July 26, 1829.

Robert Edward Lee served with great distinction in the U.S. Army. In 1852, Lee was appointed Superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point. He was reluctant to enter the "snake pit", but the War Department insisted and he obeyed. During his 3 years at West Point, Brevet Colonel Robert E. Lee improved the buildings and courses and spent much time with the cadets. Lee's oldest son, George Washington Custis Lee, attended West Point during his tenure. Custis Lee graduated in 1854, first in his class. Lee was enormously relieved to receive a long-awaited promotion as second-in-command of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment in Texas in 1855. It meant leaving the Engineering Corps for the combat command he truly wanted.

Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis had seven children: George Washington Custis "Boo" Lee, Mary Custis Lee, William Henry Fitzhugh "Rooney" Lee, Anne Carter Lee, Eleanor Agnes Lee, Robert Edward "Rob" Lee Jr., Mildred Childe "Milly" Lee.

Boo, Rooney and Rob all served in the Confederate States of America Army during the War of Northern Aggression. Of the seven children, five remained unmarried. William Henry Fitzhugh Lee and Robert Edward Lee, Jr. married and had surviving children. All the children survived their father except for Anne, who died in 1862 of typhoid fever at the young age of 33.

Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee with her son, Robert Edward Lee, Jr. about 1845.

In 1857, Mary Anna Custis Lee's father, George Washington Parke Custis, died leaving everything to his daughter. This included vast land assets and slaves but little cash. His will stipulated freeing his hundreds of slaves within 5 years of his death.

Lee tried to hire an overseer to handle the plantation in his absence, writing to his cousin, "I wish to get an energetic honest farmer, who while he will be considerate and kind to the negroes, will be firm and make them do their duty." But Lee failed to find a man for the job, and had to take a two-year leave of absence from the army in order to run the plantation himself. The estate was in disarray, and the plantations had been poorly managed and were losing money. At Arlington, the servants had been notoriously indolent [lazy], their master's master. Lee found himself asset rich but cash poor. With memories of his father in debtor's prison and of his childhood spent at the charity of family, Lee struggled to stabilize the family finances within the deadline of five years. But some of the slaves had thought they would be freed upon the death of Custis and didn't understand they had to wait another five years. These slaves began to refuse Lee's orders and defy his authority, even to running away.  In May 1858, Lee wrote to his son Rooney, "I have had some trouble with some of the people. Reuben, Parks and Edward, in the beginning of the previous week, rebelled against my authority—refused to obey my orders, and said they were as free as I was, etc., etc.—I succeeded in capturing them and lodging them in jail. They resisted till overpowered and called upon the other people to rescue them." Lee privately wrote to his son Custis that "The N. Y. Tribune has attacked me for my treatment of your grandfather's slaves, but I shall not reply. He has left me an unpleasant legacy." Lee had to deal strongly with a few of them until he set them all free with a deed of manumission filed on December 29, 1862. All his slaves, including the ones who had given him so much trouble, were freed.

After the Civil War, Lee was not arrested, but he did lose the right to vote as well as some property. Mary and Robert's family home, the Custis-Lee Arlington Mansion, had been seized by Union forces during the War and they buried Union soldiers on the front lawn so that the Lee's could never return. It became the Arlington National Cemetery and the house still stands in the middle of the cemetery. The Lee family was not compensated for Arlington until more than a decade after his death. He accepted an offer to serve as the president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington, Virginia, and served from October 1865 until his death. Several glowing appraisals of Lee's tenure as college president have survived, depicting the dignity and respect he commanded among all. In his public statements and private correspondence, Lee argued that a tone of reconciliation and patience would further the interests of white Southerners better than hotheaded antagonism to federal authority or the use of violence. Lee repeatedly expelled white students from Washington College for violent attacks on local black men, and publicly urged obedience to the authorities and respect for law and order.

On September 28, 1870, Lee suffered a stroke and he died two weeks later. Mary had developed rheumatoid arthritis. It caused her a great deal of pain and she became more and more disabled. She became wheelchair bound in 1861. To help with the pain, Mary and her family often visited spas and springs that were reputed to improve health. In letters to her husband, she tried to downplay her illness, but it took its toll as the years passed. By the 1850s Mary organized her daily routine so that she climbed the stairs only twice each day, coming down in the morning and going back up at bedtime. Upon the outbreak of the war, she was walking with difficulty. No doubt due to in part to her nomadic existence, moving from plantation to plantation, and the stress of not knowing what was happening to her husband and sons.

Following Robert E. Lee's resignation from the U.S. Army on April 22, 1861, he pleaded with Mary to evacuate Arlington House as Union forces were certain to occupy the property. But leaving behind her family home, the Washington relics, and the Arlington slaves was difficult for Mary and she delayed. It was only the knowledge that her husband was so deeply concerned for her safety that convinced her to leave on May 15, 1861. As she wrote in a letter to General Winfield Scott a few days earlier, “Were it not that I would not add one feather to his load of care, nothing would induce me to abandon my home.” Mary and her daughters moved between several family plantations before settling in Richmond where they spent most of the War. Arlington was very important to her and she never quite got over its loss. “Life is waning away, and with the exception of my own immediate family, I am cut off from all I have ever known and loved in my youth and my dear old Arlington I cannot bear to think of that used as it is now and so little hope of my ever getting there again. I do not think I can die in peace until I have seen it once more.”

Mary Lee did visit Arlington a few months before her death in 1873. Unable to get out of the carriage, one of her former slaves, brought her a drink of water from the well. “I rode out to my dear old home but so changed it seemed but a dream of the past—I could not have realised (sic) it was Arlington but for the few old oaks they had spared and the trees planted by the Genl and myself which are raising their tall branches to the Heaven which seems to smile on the desecration around them.”
Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee in her later years. Notice her wheelchair.

Sources: Wikipedia articles on Robert Edward Lee, Light Horse Harry Lee, Mary Anna Custis Lee, George Washington Parke Custis, etc. and www.nps.gov/arho/learn/historyculture/mary-lee.htm

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Little Known Fact About Jefferson Davis

Confederate States of America (C.S.A.) President Jefferson Davis was married to Varina Howell. They had 6 children of which 4 died tragically (2 yr old Samuel Emory Davis undiagnosed illness; single 21 yr old Jeff Davis, Jr in yellow fever epidemic; 5 yr old Joseph Evan Davis of a tragic fall; 10 yr old William Howell Davis of diptheria), one daughter never married and died 9 yrs after her father at the young age of 34. Another daughter reached adulthood, married and had 5 children but died at 54 yrs old. Then the Davis' attempted to foster/adopt a mulatto boy. Davis is one of the men being vilified in the current madness against anything Confederate. See what kind of man he really was!

Wikipedia - Jim Limber, aka Jim Limber Davis, was an octoroon (1/8 black) boy who was briefly a ward of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America. He was under the care of the Davis family from February 1864 to May 1865. His real name may have been James Henry Brooks.

On February 14, 1864, Varina Howell Davis, wife of Jefferson Davis, was returning home in Richmond, Virginia, when she saw a black boy being beaten by a black woman. Outraged, she immediately put an end to the beating and had the boy come with her in her carriage. He was cared for by Mrs. Davis and her staff. They gave him clothes belonging to the Davis's son, Joe, since the boys were of similar age. When asked his name, he just said "Jim Limber."

Davis arranged for Jim to be freed from slavery. It is unknown if Davis actually adopted him. There was no adoption law in Virginia at that time, so any adoption would be an "extralegal" affair.

Jim was with the Davises when they were forced to abandon Richmond before the Union Army captured the city in April 1865. When the Davises were captured by Union forces in Irwinville, Georgia, on May 15, Jim was separated from them. Some recounts of the story say this was due to a swift kidnapping of Limber by the Union Army, while other accounts say that the Davises recognized a Union general they knew well, Rufus Saxton. The Davis family never saw Jim again.

Jim briefly lived with Saxton in Charleston, South Carolina, but was eventually sent north for education until he was old enough to support himself. Though it is mentioned in some of the more sympathetic biographies of Jefferson Davis that he never stopped searching for Jim Limber, this search seems to be recorded only in oral history as it is not mentioned in his voluminous surviving correspondence for the last two decades of his life in which mention at all of Jim Limber is fleeting.

In 2008, the Sons of Confederate Veterans offered a $100,000 statue of Jefferson Davis to the American Civil War Center in Richmond. A life-sized Jim Limber is depicted on the statue, holding one hand of a life sized Jefferson Davis who is holding the hand of his son Joseph with the other hand. The statue was completed in fall 2008 and while it was initially accepted by the center, the deal quickly fell through and is now on permanent display at Beauvoir, Davis' Mississippi home.

Friday, August 11, 2017

Our Male Calico Cat

I've been a dog person and never thought I would really take to a cat. My experiences with cats had all been negative... until last year. My husband made the comment that he would like to have a cat. He had a cat he liked as a child and I never knew about it. Well, he's put up with my dogs all these years so I thought we could get a cat if that was what he wanted. So a friend of ours had rescued a little calico kitten and was hand feeding it and looking for a good home. We adopted "Binky" and she became my cat! I was home more than Stan and I'm the one that got her, gave her baths, took her to the vet and let her sleep with me. Don't get me wrong, Stan did his share. He has always fed and cleaned her kitty litter box. We both fell in love with little Binky! No one was as surprised as I was to find out how much I could love a cat!!!

Alas, Binky began to slow down. At her 1 year vet visit, the vet discovered an enlarged heart, she was full of fluid (we had thought she was just gaining weight) and one of her kidneys had quit. She only had a matter of days, weeks at the most. So we were in shock and chose to have her put to sleep rather than let her suffer the last few days. It was so hard, as you can imagine. I called Stan and he came to meet me at the vet and we loved on her and were there for her last minutes.

I learned a long time ago that the best way to heal is to adopt again. It gives you a necessary outlet for the flood of emotions. So the next week, Stan and I agreed to adopt another cat. My little grand nephew, Ryan, went with me and we looked at a 1 year old Calico cat and a Calico kitten. Here is the kitten at the Humane Society.

Ryan in front of the kitten at the Humane Society

The older Calico was the same age as Binky, beautiful and even had the scarred eye that Binky had. She had been at the Humane Society for about 3 weeks so her time would soon be over. OTOH, the Calico kitten meant that we would have her from kittenhood and maybe she would bond with us even more? Remember, I'm new to cats so I wasn't sure. I decided to adopt the older Calico and brought Daphne Doolittle home. She's wonderful!

Daphne Doolittle (aka Daphy Duck)

But when I got home and told Stan about the kitten, he told me to get the kitten too. The next day, I was waiting at the Humane Society when they opened and I adopted the kitten too. She had to be spayed so I had to leave her overnight.

The next day I got a call from the Humane Society to say the kitten had been taken into surgery to be spayed and when they opened "her" up they found NO UTERUS! The Calico kitten was actually a MALE! Did I still want him?

I said, "Or course" but I didn't realize how rare a male Calico is! They told me it was rare so I got on the Internet and found that a male Calico cat is like one in three thousand! He is neutered and we got him home and he's such a doll baby! We named him Captain Fishipants. He has been to my vet's office and my vet said, "Twenty years as a vet and this is my first male Calico!" I thought my rare find should have a blog post. So here is to Captain Fishipants!

We couldn't be happier with our Calico cats! They get along with our senior Italian Greyhounds - no problems!

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